Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was the foremost freedom fighter of the country. With his vision, knowledge, talent, and the magic of his pen, he influenced the whole of India. With his revolutionary works, he left an indelible mark in the history of the country. He became the first education minister of independent India.
Childhood life of Abdul Kalam Azad
Abul Kalam’s full name was Abul Kalam Ahmed Muhiyuddin Azad. He was born on 11 November 1888 in Mecca. His father’s name was Mohammad Khairuddin. He was a famous scholar of the Arabic language. His mother was the daughter of Sheikh Muhammad Zahir Watri, a famous scholar of Mecca. The early years of Abul’s childhood were spent in Mecca. His father settled in Kolkata in 1890 on the advice of one of his disciples. He had his early education at home. His parents believed that good education is not given in madrassa. His mother taught him Arabic and his father taught him Urdu.
In those days, the entire curriculum of Nizami was taught in Arabic, Persian language, philosophy, logic, numerology, geography, and history. It used to take a normal student fourteen years to complete this course. Abul completed this course in just four years. At that time that course was not considered complete until the student proved that he had acquired the ability to teach others. Abul proved his worth at the age of fourteen. In his childhood, he was attracted to Arabic Persian literature. His hobby was reading books. Apart from being a brilliant child, he was also a teenage writer and journalist.
How Maulana got the nickname “Azad”?
In 1902, Abul Kalam started publishing a magazine called Satya Ki Awaaz from Kolkata. This critical literary magazine influenced a large number of people. At the age of fourteen, Abul started doing poetry beautifully. He published a magazine called Nerang Alam. In this, ghazals of emerging poets of Urdu were published. Nadir Khan, a disciple of the famous poet Ghalib, listened to his poetry in Mushaira. Then he did not believe that that little teenager could do such good poetry. Once Nadir Khan took his test. Seeing his poetic style, Nadir Khan immediately gave Abul Kalam the nickname “Azad“. This surname has become immortal in history. After that, he became popular as Maulana Azad.
When Abul kalam went to jail first?
Abul Kalam’s articles continued to be published in many literary magazines. He also went to Lucknow, Amritsar, Kolkata from time to time for editing work. During 1905 and 1907 he traveled to Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. At that time, the British slowly started looking at Hindus and Muslims in different ways to fight against each other in the Indian public. Abul Kalam did not agree with this.
With the aim of awakening the feeling of nationalism among Hindus and Muslims, he started publishing a weekly magazine called “Alahilal” from Kolkata on 1 June 1912. This magazine became very popular. Abul Kalam had created awareness among Muslims through Alahilal. But these were signs of danger to the British. Therefore Abul Kalam was imprisoned under the Indian Security Act and Alahilal was imprisoned. He was allowed to read books in jail. It was during that time that he wrote the book “Tajkera” based on the memoir. At the same time, he also started Urdu translation of Quran Sharif including commentary. He was released in 1919.
Abul Kalam is active in the khilafat movement.
After coming out of jail, he made his foray into politics during the Khilafat movement. Later he also became the President of the All India Khilafat Committee. He met Gandhiji on 18 January 1920 in Delhi. In February, the chairmanship of the second conference of the Khilafat movement was handed over to Abul Kalam. During the Khilafat Movement, he became a popular leader by becoming fully active in politics. In 1921 Abul Kalam was again arrested and kept in Alipore Jail. In 1923 he was released from prison.
When the program for the visit of the Prince of Wales to India was made, Congress decided to boycott it. For this volunteers were deployed in each province. Abul Kalam and Chittaranjan Das were entrusted with the responsibility of creating awareness about the country among the people of Bengal. But the government issued a notification and declared the voluntary organizations illegal. Abul Kalam was sentenced to one year in jail along with several other leaders in Kolkata.
Participation in Indian national congress.
In September 1923, Abul Kalam became the President of the Indian National Congress. When the plan was made for the Simon Commission to come to India in 1927, it was decided to organize protests across the country. Abul Kalam presided over a meeting in Kolkata and took charge of the protest. In 1935-36 elections were held in the country, in which Congress also participated. Congress constituted a parliamentary committee to analyze the elections, in which Abul Kalam was also included as a member. He was entrusted with the responsibility of looking after the parliamentary affairs of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Sindh, and its adjoining territories.
In 1937, a three-member sub-committee was formed, which included Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Abul Kalam did creative work from here and strengthened Hindu-Muslim unity. As soon as the Quit India Movement started in August 1942, the top leaders of the country were arrested by the government. Abul Kalam was also put under house arrest in Ahmed Nagar Fort. By the time the Round Table Conference was held in Shimla in June 1945, Abul Kalam was released.
In that conference organized by the Viceroy Lord Wabel in consultation with the British Government, Abul Kalam clarified India’s side. Presented the idea of Purna Swaraj to the country and demanded independence. For this purpose, the government announced a general election. Except for two or three states, the Congress government was formed in the whole of India. Abul Kalam also won the election. As a result, he was made education minister in the central government.
Last moment of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
India was partitioned as Pakistan on 14 August 1947 on the demand of the Muslim League. Simultaneously, Hindu Muslim riots broke out in the country. Seeing this, the dream of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was finally broken. Abul Kalam, who served the country for a long time, died on 22 February 1958. In 1922, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, for his active contribution to the country’s independence and strengthening communal unity.